Synonym: Bassamino, Barzemin, Barzamino, Berzemino, Balsamina di Forlì, Berzemin Berzamino, Capolino, Marzemina, Marzemino d’Isera, Marzemino d’Istria, Marzemino Gentile, Marzolino, Marzemina Friulana.
Commonly mistaken for: Balsamino, Balsamina, Marzemino Padovano, Negron, Neurone, Refosco di Faedis.
Origin: Italian variety, cultivated in the Veneto region, since 1400. After it was introduced in the Trentino, Friuli, Lombardia and Emilia regions, where by effect of accumulation of genic variations and of the interaction with environment, is now possible to see a high intravarietal phenotypical variability. Acerbi (1825) has detected the existence of 8 biotypes that can be differentiated for Ampelografic and quality characteristics of their vines. Molon (1906) and Dalmasso (1937) have affirmed the existence of two fundamental typologies that can contain the nine biotypes of Marzemino verified in 1868 (Grape Show in Vicenza). The first typology is: Marzemino gentile or Marzemino commune: characterized by firm flesh of the berry and the stem of the bunches is herbaceous ; the second one is Marzemina or Marzemino padovano characterized by soft flesh and lignified stem of the bunches.
Agronomic and environmental aspects: High and constant yield. This variety prefers less fertile soils and low-vigour sites, with a good percentage of clay, rich in calcium carbonate and in rock fragments of basalt. It is suitable for different training systems. In the limited area of Italy, the wide traditional systems are (Pergola), not so common the VSP (Guyot). The vines prefer cane pruning, leaving long rods or cane of 10-15 buds, but can be easily adapted for every type of training system also designed for full mechanization (spur pruning).
Diseases, pests and disorders: It has poor resistance to botrytis, powdery mildew and sour bunch rot, while shows a good resistance to downy mildew. It isn’t susceptible to “dropping off” and “hen and chicken”. It shows a good resistance to iron chlorosis.
Growing Tip: fully open, cottony, of whitish green colour, with pink reflexes.
Leaf: medium, pentagonal, 3-lobed and rarely 5-lobed. Has a V-shaped petiolar sinus with lobes strongly overlapped, lateral sinuses U-shaped, also the superior sinuses can be deep, while inferior are hardly present. The profile is V-shaped, blistered, with undulate and revolute lobes.
Bunch: medium, long, of pyramidal or cylindrical form, winged, semi-compact. [average weight: 427g. vintage 2005].
Berry: medium-large dimensions, round-elliptic; skin is thin, but strong, of blue-black colour, covered a lot of bloom, difficult ease of detachment from pedicel. [average weight: 1.54g. vintage 2005].
- VCR 3:Biotype “Marzemino Comune”, selected by Rauscedo. Clone characterized by medium-high vigour and constant productivity, large bunches with loose density of berries. Good resistance to botrytis.
The wine has an intense ruby-red colour, fruity perfume, with a good body, alcoholic, well-balanced not tannic and with a varietal harmonic flavour of violet. It becomes mature with a short ageing, acquiring high value fragrances and aromas. In past, with a good preservation in “fruttaio” a very good dessert wine and sparking wine could be obtained. The wine made from the grapes of this variety is usually blended with others varieties for important DOC of the Trentino, Lombardia, Veneto and Emilia Romagna regions: Botticino, Cellatica, Garda, Garda Rosso Classico, Colli di Scandiano e di Canossa. It is bottled as a stand-alone varietal for DOC: Trentino Marzemino, Merlara Marzemino, Refrontolo Passito and Breganze Marzemino.